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GALLERY MICRO PHOTOGRAPHY

Click on thumbnails to enlarge
Note that images are not to scale


spacertree roots

 
Tree roots and vines in the jungle. Photo courtesy Jill Forshee.
Note how natural and organic all the old hand spun material looks, both cotton and silk. The oldest, early 19th c. and before, look like the vines and tree roots underfoot in a jungle. This is a quality that the microscopy brings out, but that is often immediately apparent to the feel of the cloth, and the first visual appearance - though we have repeatedly been surprised to see hand spun thread in old cloth where we had expected to see early machine made thread, Benang Belanda from Dutch factories on Sumatra and Java, or imported from elsewhere, e.g. China.
       This 'close reading' of the cloths in our collection, an ongoing process started in early 2016, is yielding much confirmation of expectation, but also surprises. The variety of thread combinations for instance is greater than expected. We are seeing hand spun thread used singly and double-ply; commercial thread used singly, double-ply, triple-play and even quadruple ply; this paired with single, double, triple, and in once case quadruple weft. We urge you to kindly report any insights or details that we missed.

For reference visit the page with examples of known machine spun thread.



001 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Borneo, Sarawak, 1950

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003 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Roti Group, Roti, 1930

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004 Cotton, commercial, fine, quadruple-ply
Timor, West Timor, 1940-50


005 Cotton, commercial, fine, quadruple-ply
Timor, West Timor, 1950-1960

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006 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Roti Group, Ndao, 1920-40

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007 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Flores Group, Peninsula, Early 20th c.


008 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Roti Group, Ndao, 1920-1940

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013 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Timor, West Timor, 1910-1940

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014 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Roti Group, Roti, 1900-1925


015 Cotton, hand spun, fine, double-ply. Quadruple-ply weft.
Sumba, East Sumba, 1960s

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024 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Sikka, 1925 or older

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026 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Savu Group, Savu, 1930


028 Cotton, commercial, fine, double-ply
Savu Group, Savu, 1930-1940

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031 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, 1940-1950

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032 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Borneo, Sarawak, 1925-1945


033 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Borneo, Sarawak, 1880 to early 20th c.

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034 Cotton, commercial, fine
Borneo, Sarawak, 1925-1950

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035 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Borneo, Sarawak, 1940


036 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Borneo, Sarawak, 1930-1945

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037 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Borneo, Sarawak, 1920-1930

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038 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Borneo, Sarawak, 1880-1920


039 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Borneo, Sarawak, 1940-1950

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040 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Borneo, Sarawak, 1940

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041 Cotton, hand spun, fine - plus accent stripes in commercial cotton.
Borneo, Sarawak, 1920


043 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Bali Group, Nusa Penida, Early 20th c.

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046 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Bali Group, Nusa Penida, Mid to late 19th c.

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050 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Flores Group, Sikka, Circa 1950


051 Cotton, hand spun, very fine
Flores Group, Sikka, 1925-1945

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052 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Nage Keo, 19th to early 20th c.

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056 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Lio, Early 20th c.


057 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Sumatra, Batak, Late 19th tot early 20th c.

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058 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Bali Group, Tenganan, Early 1900s

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059 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Bali Group, Tenganan, 1930


060 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Bali Group, Tenganan, 19th c.

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061 Silk, hand spun
India, Gujarat, 1725-1800

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063 Silk, hand spun
India, Gujarat, 1750-1800


065 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Sumba, East Sumba, 1920-1940

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069 Silk, hand spun
Sumatra, Bangka, 18th to mid 19th c.

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072 Cotton, hand spun, fine, double-ply
Sumba, East Sumba, 1970s


073 Cotton, wheel spun, fine, double-ply
Sumba, East Sumba, 1930-1945

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074 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Borneo, Sarawak, Circa 1940

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075 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Borneo, Sarawak, 1935-1950


076 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Ngadha, Early 20th c.

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077 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Timor, Timor-Leste, Early 20th c.

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079 Lontar fibre or coarse cotton, or mixture.
Moluccas, Tanimbar, 1940


080 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Tanimbar, 1920-1940

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081 Cotton, hand spun and commercial
Timor, West Timor, 1950-1960

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082 Rayon, fine
Flores Group, Lio, 1950


084 Cotton, hand spun, fine, double-ply
Flores Group, Ndona, 1930-1945

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085 Cotton, wheel spun, fine, double-ply
Flores Group, Ndona, 1930-1940

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091 Cotton, hand spun, fine - plus pinstripes in commercial cotton.
Moluccas, Luang, 1925-1940


092 Cotton, hand spun, very fine, quadruple ply.
Moluccas, Kisar, 1925-1945

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093 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Sikka, 1940 or earlier

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095 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, 1920-1940


097 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Flores Group, Peninsula, 1960

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099 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Lio, 1920-1930

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100 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Sulawesi, Toraja, Late colonial


102 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Kisar, 19th c.

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103 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Kisar, Late 19th to early 20th c.

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107 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Roti Group, Roti, 1930-1950, perhaps earlier


108 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Nage Keo, 1900-1925

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109 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Moluccas, Babar, 1890-1930

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110 Cotton, hand spun, fine - plus pinstripes in commercial thread.
Moluccas, Lakor, 1940


112 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, Circa 1910

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114 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Solor Archipelago, Alor, 1920-1940

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115 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Solor Archipelago, Lembata, 19th or early 20th c.


116 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Ngadha, 19th to early 20th c.

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117 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Savu Group, Raijua, 1930-1950.

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119 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Solor Archipelago, Lembata, 19th or very early 20th c.


120 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Timor, West Timor, 1930-1940

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122 Cotton, hand spun, medium - plus pinstripes in commercial thread.
Timor, Timor-Leste, 1950

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124 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Bali Group, Bali, Late 19th - early 20th c.


127 Cotton, hand spun, fine, double-ply
Roti Group, Roti, 1940

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128 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Flores Group, Peninsula, 1950

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129 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Bali Group, Nusa Penida, 1950 or before


130 Cotton, hand spun, medium, and silk
Solor Archipelago, Adonara, Late 19th to early 20th C.

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131 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Solor Archipelago, Lembata, 19th or very early 20th c.

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132 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Timor, West Timor, 1925-1950


133 Cotton, largely hand spun
Timor, West Timor, 1960

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138 Cotton, largely hand spun
Moluccas, Kisar, 1900-1925

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140 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Borneo, Sarawak, 1950


142 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Savu Group, Savu, 1950 or earlier

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143 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Savu Group, Savu, 1950

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145 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Savu Group, Savu, 1950


146 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Sumatra, Batak, Early 20th c.

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148 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Solor Archipelago, Solor, 1940-1955

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149 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, 1940-1960


150 Cotton, commercial, fine, double-ply
Timor, West Timor, 1970

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154 Silk, commercial, fine
Sulawesi, Bugis, 1950-1960

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160 Cotton, hand spun, fine, double-ply
Sumba, East Sumba, 1950-1960


161 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Ende, 1910-1930

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162 Cotton, hand spun, plus pinstripes in commercial cotton.
Timor, West Timor, Circa 1950

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164 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Ngadha, Early 20th c.


165 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Tanimbar, Circa 1950.

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166 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Solor Archipelago, Alor, 1920-1950

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167 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Solor Archipelago, Buaya, 1930-1950


168 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Sumatra, Lampung, 18th-19th c.

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170 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Moluccas, Kisar, 19th C. or older

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171 Cotton, commercial, fine, double-ply
Sumba, East Sumba, 1910-1925


173 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Moluccas, Tanimbar, 1950 or before

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174 Cotton, hand spun, very fine
Sumatra, Batak, 19th to early 20th c.

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175 Cotton, commercial, fine, double-ply
Savu Group, Savu, 1930-1940


176 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, 1920-1945

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177 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, 1940-1955

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178 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Solor Archipelago, Lembata, 19th to early 20th c.


179 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Solor Archipelago, Solor, Ca 1950

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180 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Roti Group, Roti, Early 20th c.

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181 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Timor, West Timor, Circa 1950


182 Cotton, quadruple-ply fine commercial thread
Timor, West Timor, Circa 1950

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183 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, Late 19th c.

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184 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Solor Archipelago, Pantar, 1925-1950


185 Cotton, ca. 99% hand spun
Savu Group, Savu, Before 1950

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186 Cotton, double-ply commercial thread
Timor, Semau, Before 1950

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187 Cotton, hand spun, fine, double-ply
Sumba, East Sumba, 1930-1945


188 Cotton, hand spun, fine, double-ply
Sumba, East Sumba, 1930s

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189 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, Timor-Leste, 1925-1945

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190 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Ende, Circa 1850 (well before 1888)


191 Cotton, commercial, fine
Timor, West Timor, 1930-1950

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192 Cotton, commercial, fine
Timor, West Timor, 1930-1950

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193 Cotton, wheel spun, fine, double-ply
Sumba, East Sumba, Early 20th C.


195 Cotton, hand spun and commercial
Moluccas, Leti, 1930s

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196 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Flores Group, Ende, Circa 1930

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197 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Nage Keo, 1900-1925


198 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Babar, Early 20th c.

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199 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Ende, 19th - early 20th c.

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200 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Kisar, 19th c. or early 20th c.


201 Cotton, hand spun, single-ply and double-ply
Sulawesi, Toraja, Late 19th - early 20th c.

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202 Cotton, hand spun, double-ply
Borneo, Sarawak, 1940-1950 (?)

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203 Silk, hand spun, very fine
Sumatra, Aceh, 1800-1850


205 Silk, hand spun
Sumatra, Palembang, 18th-19th c.

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206 Cotton, commercial, fine, quadruple-ply
Timor, West Timor, 1925-1945

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207 Cotton, hand-spun and commercial
Timor, West Timor, 1920-1940


209 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Flores Group, Palu'e, 19th c. to very early 20th c.

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210 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Lombok, Lombok, 1920

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211 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Flores Group, Peninsula, 1945 or before


212 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Borneo, Kalimantan, Late 19th - early 20th c.

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214 Silk, hand spun, fine
Bali Group, Bali, 19th to early 20th c.

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217 Cotton, hand spun, very fine
Sumatra, Batak, Late 19th C.


218 Cotton, very fine, double-ply. Whether hand-spun or commercial could not be ascertained. See micro-photography.
Sumba, East Sumba, Early 20th c.

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219 Cotton, hand spun, very fine, double-ply. Whether hand-spun or commercial could not be ascertained with confidence. See micro-photography.
Sumba, East Sumba, Early 20th c.

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220 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Borneo, Sarawak, Early 20th c.


223 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Borneo,  Sarawakm, 1920s

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224 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, Late 19th to early 20th c.

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225 Cotton, hand spun, coarse, double ply
Sulawesi, Toraja, Early 20th c.


228 Cotton, hand spun, fine, double-ply
Sumba, East Sumba, 1930-1945

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229 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Borneo, Kalimantan, Early 20th c.

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230 Cotton, hand spun, very fine, twice twined
Borneo, Kalimantan, Late 19th to early 20th c.


231 Cotton, commercial, fine, double-ply
Savu Group, Savu, 1940-1950

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235 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, 19th to early 20th c.

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237 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, Timor-Leste, 1935-1950


241 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Sumatra, Kaur, Mid 19th to very early 20th c.

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242 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Borneo, Kalimantan, 19th to early 20th c.

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243 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Borneo, Sarawak, 1920 of before


244 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, 1930s

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245 Cotton, commercial, fine, double-ply
Timor, West Timor, 1930-1950

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246 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Ende, 1910-1930


247 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Sulawesi, Toraja, 1930-1945

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248 Cotton, hand spun and commercial
Moluccas, Leti, Before 1911

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249 Cotton, hand spun, extremely fine, double ply
Sumatra, Batak, Second quarter 20th c.


250 Silk, commercial
Bali Group, Bali, 19th to early 20th c.

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251 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Flores Group, Lio, Early 20th c.

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252 Cotton, hand spun, extremely fine
Sumatra, Batak, Early 20th c.


253 Cotton, hand spun, very fine
Sumatra, Batak, 19th to early 20th c.

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254 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Savu Group, Savu, Mid 20th c. or before

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255 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Savu Group, Savu, 1940


256 Cotton, hand spun and commercial
Timor, Timor-Leste, 1920-1930

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257 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Sumatra, Batak, 19th c.

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258 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Timor, West Timor, 1900-1930


259 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Flores Group, Ende, 1900-1930

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260 Cotton, hand spun, fine
Moluccas, Halmahera, Circa 1930

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261 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Tanimbar, Circa 1900


262 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Moluccas, Tanimbar, Early 20th c.

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263 Cotton, commercial, fine, quadruple-ply to achieve firmness.
Moluccas, Tanimbar, Circa 1950

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264 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Moluccas, Tanimbar, 1950 or before


265 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Tanimbar, 1950 or before

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266 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Tanimbar, Circa 1950

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267 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Sermata, 19th c.


269 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Moluccas, Tanimbar, Early 20th c.

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270 Cotton, hand spun, coarse
Moluccas, Tanimbar, Late 19th c.

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271 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Romang, Early 20th c.


273 Cotton, hand spun, medium - plus accent stripes in commercial cotton
Moluccas, Kisar, 1950 or before

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274 Cotton, hand spun, medium - plus accent stripes in commercial cotton
Moluccas, Kisar, Circa 1950

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275 Cotton, hand spun, medium - plus accent stripes in commercial cotton.
Moluccas, Kisar, Late colonial period.


276 Cotton, hand spun, medium - plus accent stripes in commercial cotton
Moluccas, Kisar, 1950 or before

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277 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Tanimbar, First quarter 20th c. or 19th c.

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278 Cotton, hand spun, fine, quadruple-ply, loosely twined - plus accent stripes in commercial cotton
Moluccas, Sermata, Late colonial


279 Cotton, hand spun, fine, double ply, and commercial thread.
Moluccas, Luang, Late colonial to 1950

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280 Cotton, hand spun, plus pinstripes in commercial cotton. Chemical dyes.
Moluccas, Luang, 1950-1960

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281 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Moluccas, Kisar, First half 20th c.


283 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Sumba, East Sumba, Ca. 1940

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284 Cotton, hand spun, medium, and silk
Solor Archipelago, Adonara, 19th c.

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285 Hand spun cotton, medium, for the ikated field. Buna in pre-dyed commercial silk.
Timor, West Timor, Early 20th c.


286 Cotton, hand spun, extremely fine, quadruple-ply
Timor, Timor-Leste, 1950 or before.

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287 Cotton, hand spun, medium - plus pinstripes in commercial thread.
Timor, West Timor, 1920-1945

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289 Cotton, hand spun, fine - plus pinstripes in commercial thread.
Timor, West Timor, 1930-1950


290 Cotton, hand spun, medium
Roti Group, Ndao, 1900-1925

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©Peter ten Hoopen, 2017. All rights reserved.